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日期:2018-05-20 16:14 作者:绮为论文网 论文字数:16843 点击次数:0
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内容提要:跨国公司是科学技术和社会生产力发展的结果。是生产集中、资本集中和经济全球化的产物,是当代世界经济技术合作的新型的企业组织形式。它代表着现代企业的发展方向,

内容提要:跨国公司是科学技术和社会生产力发展的结果。是生产集中、资本集中和经济全球化的产物,是当代世界经济技术合作的新型的企业组织形式。它代表着现代企业的发展方向,直接体现着国家的竞争力。目前跨国公司的触角已遍及世界每个角落和各个领域。现代跨国公司已成为现代国际投资、国际生产、国际贸易和国际技术转让中最活跃最有影响的力量,据联合国贸发会议最新发布的世界投资报告显示,目前世界上共有各类跨国公司5.3万家,其分支机构45万之众。跨国公司控制着全球生产的40%左右,国际贸易的50-60%,国际技术贸易的60-70%,技术研究与开发的 80-90%。国际直接投资额的 90%,事实上,当前的国际经济关系,在很大程度上是跨国公司内部的关系,跨国公司特别是其中几百家占统治地位的巨型跨国公司形成了巨大的、无所不包的全球经济网络,各国之间的经济关系在很大程度上不过是跨国公司内部经济关系的外在表现,因此,跨国公司已经成为当前国际经济关系的主体,即将到来的21世纪将是世界企业跨国经营的全盛时期,一切高水平、高层次、大规模的贸易、投资和科学研究等活动均将以跨国公司为主体或载体进行。跨国公司将主宰未来全球经济。
    世纪之交的中国融于国际社会的步伐更加急促,在下世纪初,如何缩JJ、同经济大国在经济水平和综合实力的差距,提高我国整体国际竞争能力,屹立于强国之林,成为国人普遍点心的重大问题。事实上,从改革开放伊始,我国的企业就迈出国门,开始了对外投资,从事跨国经营活动,无论是发展速度还是规模都是前所未有的,与同等的发展中国家相比,也是相当高的。有事实表的,我国企业对外直接投资和跨国经营是推动我国国民经济高速发展的一个重要因素,并正在成为今后经济持续发展的新增长点.但是,我国企业的跨国经营处于刚刚起步阶段,尤其是与发达国家的跨国企业相比,差距较大,还存在许多不足和亟待解决的问题。因此,总结我们企业20年来跨国经营的实践经验,探索即符合国际经济活动一般规律,又适合中国现实国情的企业跨国经营之路,将是一项十分有意义的工作,我们热切企盼中国自己跨国公司的成长。
本论文共分七章。
    前五章主要分析研究世纪之交跨国公司发展、变化、运行的一般规律的特征;后两章则是在前五章的基础上,借鉴跨国公司国际化经营的经验,探寻中国企业跨国经营之路。
    第一章当代跨国公司的发展。本章从总体上对跨国公司的发展历程进行了梳理和历史考察,并就战后跨国公司迅速发展的原因进行了理论上的剖析。在此基础上,重点就当代跨国公司对外直接投资发展的新情况新变化进行深入探讨。指出跨国公司的新变化不仅仅表现在量的变化,更重要的是表现在质的突破和飞跃。论文从七个方面予以了全面的阐述。与此同时,还就跨国公司直接投资的地区流向的变化、直接投资供求关系变化的趋势进行了分析研究,最后得出结论,跨国公司发展对经济全球化的影响是广泛而深刻的。
    第二章世纪之交跨国公司的战略调整。本章从四个方面对世纪之交跨国公司的战略调整进行了全面康入的研究。这四个方面的战略调整:即发展战略的调整、投资战略的调整、技术研究与开发战略的调整、组织结构的调整,构成了世纪之交跨国公司发展的最重要的特征。在分析中不但就四大战略调整的基本概况进行了描述,更重要的是就战略调整的深刻根源进行了理论上的说明,这些战略调整极大地影响着当今的国际经济关系,推动着经济全球化的进程,引起各国政府、国际经济组织及企业界人士的广泛关注、高度重视和对当代国际经济关系问题的深刻反思。于是在本章结尾就跨国公司影响的政治经济学涵义进行了理论上的探讨。指出跨国公司的发展正在改变着人们对主权、民族国家的看法,逐渐淡化了主权国家的市场范围和与其相应的经济疆界,国际企业的归属或国籍也变得模糊起来。并且随着跨国公司的不断发展变化,国家的经济目标也在进行着调整,也发生着变化。
    第三章跨国公司直接投资理论及新发展。本章是在前两章跨国公司实践发展的基础上,分三个部分对跨国公司直接投资严论进行了分析。第一部分阐述了马克思列宁主义的关于国际直接投资理论,即资本输出理论,这是我们分析研究当代跨国公司对外投资的理论基础的出发表,同时阐述了我国对外开放的理论和实践丰富和发展了马克思列宁主义和毛泽东思想的国际投资理论。”第二部分对西方学者的几种较为流行的跨国公司直接投资理论进行了分析,并作了简要的评述。第三部分侧重就90年代以来西方学者提出的关于解释跨国公司直接投资原因的理论进行了研究,并作了评价。纵揽西方学者的跨国公司直接投资理论的不同派别,大致可分为两种类型,一种是以国际贸易学说为基础的跨国公司理论,侧重于宏观分析,如产品生命周期理论和比较优势理论等;另一种是以产业组织学说为基础的跨国公司理论,侧重于微观分析,如垄断优势论和内部化理论等。
    第四章跨国公司的对外直接投资。本章是对跨国公司对外直接投资的微观企业行为的一般分析。跨国公司对外直接投资一般要明确三个基本问题:“Why”、“Where”和“Ho。”,即为什么要对外直接投资(投资动因)、在哪里投资(区位选择)和如何投资(进入方式)。本章正是针对这三个方面的问题分四部分来进行论述。首先对跨国公司对外直接投资的动因进行了阐述,指出尽管引发跨国投资的诱因很多,但基本诱因都离不开收入和成本目标驱使下的市场、生产要素、投资等因素。接下来对投资环境进行了分析,即对区位选择的条件进行了分析,这里重点对跨国公司对外投资环境评估的几种常见方法作了详细的阐述。第三部分和第四部分回答了在出口、许可证转让、对外直接投资三者之中,跨国公司选择对外直接投资的理由和根源,并就跨国公司直接投资各具优势和特点的进入方式进行了论述。
    第五章跨国公司类型的国际比较。本章主要对跨国公司的两大类型进行了比较分析,阐述了各具特色的欧美工业型跨国公司和日韩综合商社型跨国公司产生的历史渊源、发展条件、动力、优势及各具特色的组织管理结构,并就其对各类型国家产生的影响进行了分析。本章的研究为中国企业进行跨国经营选择独自特色的模式提供国际参考。
    第六章中国企业跨国经营的勃兴。本章从三个方面阐述了中国企业跨国经营的实践。首先从当代国际国内经济环境中存在的机遇与挑战分析了中国企业走向跨国经营的历史必然性及实现条件,指出20年对外开放的理论和实践基础及经验是我国企业进一步扩大跨国经营的成功保证。它的成功对我国今后国民经济的发展、综合国力和国际竞争力的提高意义重大。其次对中国企业跨国经营的历程进行了梳理和历史考察,特别是对90年代以来我国企业跨国经营的实践进行了细致的分析探讨。最后从宏观和微观两个方面分折了我国企业跨国经营的基本特征,重点探讨了当前我国企业跨国经营存在的问题和进一步发展的障碍所在,为进一步的理论探讨和进行对策性研究提供现实基础。
    第七章中国企业跨国经营战略抉择。本章是该论文的落脚点。在上述六章对跨国公司发展的历史梳理、实证考察、比较分析、规范研究的基础上,本章从三个方面构造出了中国企业进一步扩大跨国经营的战略和对策。首先对工业型跨国公司的综合商社型跨国公司进行了国际借鉴,并指出中国跨国公司的发展采取什么样的模式,要根据自身的特点和条件。其次从两个方面对中国企业跨国经营的宏观战略和微观方略进行了全方位的大胆探讨。最后还就企业跨国经营风险防范的重要意义和对策进行了分析研究。
Abstract:Transnationa1 Corporation,is the consequence of the deve1opment of sicence, techno1ogy and socia1 productive forces as we11 as the outcome of the t concentration of production and capita1.'It is a1so the resu1t of the ec0nomic g1ob1ism and new tyPe of enterprises of the contemPorary wor1d economy and techn01ogy cooperation. It stands for the deve1oping directions of modern business and direct1y embodies the c0mPetitions between countries. At present, transnationa1 corporations have a1ready reached every corner and every fie1d of the wor1d. Modern Transnationa1 Corporation has become the most active and inf1uentia1 force in internationa1 investment, internationa1 production, internationa1 trade and internationa1 techno1ogy transaction.
According to the report of wor1d investement issued by the Trade and Deve1opment Congress U. N., there are 53 thousand transnationa1 corporations of a11 kinds, wtth 450 thousand branches attached to them in the who1e wor1d. Transnationa1 corporation contro1s 4O% of the g1oba1 production, 50- 60yo of internationa1 techno1ogy trade, 8O-90yo of techno1ogica1 research and ndeve1opment and 900/ of internationa1 direct investment. In fact, the present internationa1 econony re1ationship, to great extent, is the re1ationship within the transnationa1 corporations. Transnationa1 c0rparations, especia11y the severa1 hundreds of the huge and ..
dominative ones form a 1arge, g10be1 economic web Which contains everything. The economic re1ationship betseen countries, to great extent, is no more tran an externa1 disp1ay of the econOmic re1ationship inside the transnationa1 corporations. Hence, transnationa1 corporation has a1ready been the main body of present internationa1 economy re1ationship. The 21 century, which is aPProaching, wi11 be the heyday for transnationa1 corporations- A11 of the high- 1eve1 and 1arge-sca1e activities of trade, investment and scientific studies wi11 be carried on with transnationa1 corporations as their carriers. Transnationa1 corporations wi11 contro1 the g1oba1 economy of future. China, at the end of tlie century, is quickening its steps in putting itse1f into the internationa1 society.
Chinese peop1e pay c1ose attention to how shortening the gap of economic 1eve1 and coInPrehensive power between the economic powers and China. Tliey are a1so concerned about how raising our competitive abi1ity on the who1e and consequent1y keeping us standing strong among the powers at the beginning of next century. Actua11y, since the reform and opening, our enterPrises have stepped out of China and started the business of foreign investment and transnationa1 management. Both of the deve1oPing speed ahd sca1e are unique in the history. They are fair1y high. coInPared wtth the deve1OPing countries- Some facts show that it is a !nain e1ement for our enterprises to invest direct1y and manage transnationa11y in pushing forward our nationa1 econ0my at a high speed. It is bec0ming a new increasing point of the continuous deve1opment of economy in the future. However, the transnationa1 management of our enterprises is just at its starting period, especia11y when coopared with the transnationa1 enterprises of the powers, the gap is striking. There are sti11 1ots of prob1ems which are on the way to be so1ved. Thus, it is a significant work for us to conc1ude the practica1 experience of transnationa1 management of our enterprises for 2O years and then search to find out a way which agrees with the genera1 regu1arity of internati0na1 economic activities as we11 as chinese practica1 transnationa1 management. We are keen on the expection that chinese transnationa1 corporations grow up soon'
This thesis consists of seven parts. The first five parts 1ay emphasis on the ana1ysis and study on the features of genera1 regu1arity of transnationa1 corporations' deve1oping, changing and operating at the end of the century; The 1ast two parts is a research on the chinese way of transnationa1 management of enterprises, on the basis of the former parts, by consu1ting the experience of managing transnationa1 corporations in an internationa1 way.
Chapter One: The deve1opment of conteInPorary
transnationa1 corporations. The chapter makes a genera1 ana1ysis and historica1 investigation into the deve1oping process of transnationa1 corporations. It a1so theoretica11y ana1ySes the reason Why transnationa1 corporations deve1oPed at high speed after the War. On the basis of this point, a stress is put on the profound reseach on the new situation and change of the deve1oPment of direct investment made by transnationa1 corPorations. It is pointed out that the new change of transnationa1 corPorations 1ay not on1y on the quantity but on a breakthrough and 1eap of qua1ity. The thesis gives a Who11y exp1anation in seven aspects. Meanwhi1e, an ana1ysis and research on the change of divect investments and the changing re1ations between supp1ies and demands of direct investments are a1so made in the paper. At 1ast, a conc1usion is brought up' the deve1opment of transnationa1 corporations makes an extensive and deep inf1uence on the g1oba1ized econoIny' Chapter Twot The strategica1 adjustment of transnationa1 corPorations at the end of the century.
The chapter makes a tnu1tip1e and profourd research on the strategica1 adjustment of transnationa1 corporation at the end of the century in four aspects. The four aspects are f the strategica1 adjustment in deve1opment, the $trategica1 adjustment in investrment, the strategica1 adjustment in techno1ogica1 research and deve1opment and the strategica1 adjustment in organizing structure. They consist of the most imPortant features of the deve1opment of transnationa1 corporations at the end the century. In the ana1ysis, a description is given about the genera1 situation of the four strategica1 adjustments as we11 as an eXp1anation in theory is made about the deep cause of the four strategica1 adjustments. These strategica1 adjustments have an extreme1y great inf1uence on the1. present internationa1 economic re1ations and give a Pwih to the g1oba1ized econOny and consequent1y attract the extensive concern of the governmenta1 officers .Qf many countries. internationa1 economic organizatioap and peop1e in business wor1d. They start to pay c1ose attention to this and give a carefu1 consideration to the prob1em of conteInPorary internationa1 economic re1ations. Therefore, at the end of the chapter, a discussion is made on the po1itica1 economy inf1uenced by transnationa1 corporations. 1t is pointed out that the deve1opment 0f transnationa1 corporations is changing peop1e's view on ownerships and races of the countries and gradua11y making the tnarket boundaries of countries and the be1ongings of internationa1 enterprises or nationa1ity obscured. With the continuous deve1opment of the transnationa1 corporations, the aitns of nationa1 economy are being adjusted and changed. Chapter Three f Theory of direct investment of transnationa1 corporations and its new deve1opment. The chapter makes an ana1ysis about the theory of direct investment of transnationa1 corporations in three parts, on the basis of the practica1 deve1opment of transnationa1 corporations. The first part e1aborates the theory of Maxism and Lenninism about internationa1 direct investement, --that is the theory of the export of capita1. This is the starting point of our ana1ysis and study on the theory foundation of transnationa1 corporations' foreign investments. It a1so expounds that our theory of opening to the foreign countries and the practice enriched and deve1oped the internationa1 investmenta1 theory of Maxism, Lenninistn and Mao Zedong thoughts. The second part makes an ana1ysis and a brief coarient on a few popu1ar transnationa1 corporations direct investment theories 0f the western scho1ars. The third part 1ays the stress on the research of the theory on the exp1anation of the reason why transnationa1 corporations direct1y invest, which was brought up by sotne western scho1ars in 199O's. It a1so gives the conunent. It turned out to be two tyPes when we 1ook into the different groups of the western scho1ars who brought uP the theory of transnationa1 corporations,direct investment f one is the theory of transnationa1 corporation based on internationa1 trade theory, which put stress on macro-ana1ysis; the other is the theory of transnationa1 corporation based on industria1 organization theory, which put stress on micro-ana1ysis. Chapter Fourt The foreign direct investment of transnationa1 corporation. The chapter makes a genera1..
ana1ysis on the micro-business action of transnationa1 corporations' foreign direct investment. Gerera11y speaking, transnationa1 corporations must make c1ear the three basic questions when they decide a foreign direct investment f "Why", "where" and uhow",that is "Thy do they make a f0reign direct investment9" (the motiviation of investment)' uWhere do they invest?" (the area a1ternative) and -How do they invest?" (the way of in-put) - The chapter discusses on the three questions in four aspects. First, comes the e1aboration about the motiviation of transnationa1 corporations' foreign direct investment. It is pointed out that the motiviation has very c1ose re1ationship wtth the e1ements 1ike market, production factor and investment driven by income and cost aim. Then comes the ana1ysis on investment environment. That is the ana1ySis on the conditions of the invested areas. The stress is 1aid on the e1aboration of a few popu1ar eva1uations of investing environment of transnationa1 corporations.
The third and forth parts give the answers to the questions Why transnationa1 corporations choose to invest in some p1aces as we11 as the egun about the advantages of the in- put of transnationa1 corporations.
Chapter Five: The internationa1 coInParison of transnationa1 corporation t3Tes. The chapter makes comparison and ana1ysis about the two 1arge tyPes of transnationa1 corporations. It a1so expounds the different transnationa1 corporati0ns with different features 1ike the Industria1 tyPe in Europe and AInerica and the Comprehensive Business Association troe in Japan and Korea and their history of growing,conditions Of deve1oping, motiviation, advantages and different-featured organizing and managing structures.An ana1ysis is a1so made here about the inf1uence they have on different tyPes of countries. The chapter offers an internationa1 reference to chinese. enterprises in choosing transnationa1 corporations management wtth a specia1 mode1.
Chapter Six' The growtng of the transnationa1 management 0f chinese enterprises. The chapter exPounds the experience of the transnationa1 management of chinese enterprises in three aspects. First, an ana1ySis is made about the historica1 inevitabi1ity and the practica1 conditions of chinese way to transnationa1 management, on the basis of the ana1ysis of the oPPortunities and cha11enges which exist in both internationa1 and nationa1 economic enviroanent. It is pointed out that our the0ry, practice and experience of opening for 20 years are the assurance of success of transnati0na1 management. The success is signifiant to the deve1opment of our future nationa1 economy and the inhancement of our comPrehensive nationa1 porer and the internati0na1 comPetitive abi1ity' Second, a historica1 investigation is given to the process of chinese transnationa1 management' An e1aboration and reseach are a1so made especia11y to the practice 0f our transnationa1 management since 1990's. Last1y, I ana1yses the features of our transnationa1 management in twn aspects: macro and micro. I 1ay the stress on the prob1ems and pbstac1es in our transnationa1 management at present and consequent1y provides theoreticai foundation for further research and methods.
Chapter Seven: The strategica1 choice of chinese transnationa1 management. The chapter is the footpoint of the who1e thesis. 0n the basis of the six chapters mentioned above, the chapter out1ines the strategy and po1icy that chinese enterprises used to en1arge tlieir transnationa1 management. First, an ana1ysis is made about industria1 tyPe transnationa1 corporations and comprehensive-business-associati tyPe transnationa1 corporations. At this, I point out that the mode1 by Which chinese transnationa1 corporatins deve1op themse1ves shou1d be set, according to their own features and conditions. Second, A b01d research and discussion are made on the macro and micro strategies of chinese transnationa1 management in two aspects. At 1ast, I a1so make an ana1ysis and research on the importance of preventing risks in transnationa management and the po1icies.

目录
序 言---------------------------------------------1
第一章当代跨国公司的发展---------------------------12
第一节跨国公司发展的历史回顾-------------------12
第二节跨国公司直接投资的新变化-----------------19
第二章世纪之交跨国公司的战略调整-------------------37
第一节跨国公司发展战略的调整-------------------37
第二节跨国公司投资战略的调整-------------------49
第三节跨国公司技术研究与开发战略的调整---------53
第四节跨国公司组织结构调整---------------------64
第五节跨国公司影响的政治经济学涵义-------------69
第三章跨国公司直接投资理论及新发展-----------------73
第一节马克思主义国际投资理论-------------------73
第二节西方学者的国际直接投资理论---------------76
第三节国际直接投资理论的新发展-----------------88
第四章跨国公司的对外直接投资-----------------------96
第一节跨国公司对外直接投资的动因---------------96
第二节跨国公司对外直接投资环境分析-------------100
第三节跨国公司对外直接投资策略-----------------110
第四节跨国公司对外直接投资形式-----------------119
第五章跨国公司类型的国际比较--------------------130
第一节Xi业型跨国公司------------------------130
第H节综合商祛型跨国公司---------------------141
第六章中国企业跨国经营的勃兴--------------------150
第一节中国企业跨国经营的必然性--------------151
第H节中国企业跨国经营的实践-----------------151
第三节中国企业跨国经营的特征----------------171
第六章中国企业跨国经营战略抉择------------------182
第一节企业跨国经营的国际借鉴----------------182
第H节中国企业跨国经营战略选择---------------186
界三节企业跨国经营的风险防范----------------205
参考文献----------------------------------------209
后 记----------------------------------------214
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