本文是英语论文，Since the new leadership group took office, the central leadership style, ruling philosophy, and speech style have undergone great changes. The policy measures are more intimate and the style of speech is more grounded. This is the embodiment of the new leadership group’s implementation of the concept of a human-centered governance. As a bridge of connecting the world and China, an interpreter plays an important part in conveying the Chinese voice to the world. However, the distinctive speeches of the new leaders have also caused great difficulties for interpreters. After analyzing a large number of Li Keqiang’s speech materials, the author finds that there are three main difficulties in interpretation from the cultural perspective: ancient poetry, acronyms and idioms. Subsequently, the author analyzes the strategies and the corresponding methods dealing with these three types of interpretation difficulties from the perspective of Relevance Theory. At the same time, in the speeches of leaders, there are also the emergence of Chinese no-subject sentences and long sentences which are also difficult to interpret. In this thesis, the author analyzes the difficulties and the relevant strategies and methods interpreting the Chinese long sentences and no-subject sentences, explaining their meanings, understanding their types. It further analyzes the examples of no-subject sentences and long sentences in practice. In order to complete interpretation work smoothly, it is important to find out what difficulties to be overcome and what problems to be solved which are also the logical reconstruction of thinking and language interpretation strategies.
Chapter One INTRODUCTION
With the continuous development of globalization, the communication between China and other countries in the world has continued to deepen. As a kind of main tool connecting China and the world, interpreting has experienced a boom. Especially in diplomatic situations, it has played a pivotal role in conveying Chinese information to the world. The speeches of Chinese leaders on diplomatic occasions are an important way to convey Chinese thoughts, and the interpretation of these speeches often attracts great interest from Chinese and foreign audiences. Ever since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the style of speech given by the central leaders has undergone a significant change, which has brought new challenges to the interpreters. Based on the study of interpretation the speeches by major Chinese leaders, this thesis will use Relevance Theory of pragmatics to explore which translation strategies should be used for such interpreters to achieve the optimal relevance and better communication results. The study of pragmatics and Relevance Theory in translation is of great value. Translation is a kind of communicative behavior, which helps people in different languages to complete the communication process and achieve the best communication effect. Therefore, it is essential to apply Relevance Theory to interpretation studies. The term Pragmatic first appeared in the book The Foundation of Symbolic Theory by the famous philosopher Charles Morris in 1937. Morris divided semiotics into three parts: Symbolic Relations Learning, Semantics, and Pragmatics. But till 1977, pragmatics became an independent discipline. Relevance Theory becomes an important principle of pragmatics, and domestic research on Relevance Theory is also emerging. A theory of cognitive pragmatics about verbal communication, co-sponsored by French cognitive scientist D. Sperber and British linguist D. Wilson. Relevance Theory holds that the communicative process is not just a process of decoding code, but a process of dialogue and the reasoning contextual information. Although Relevance Theory is a cognitive pragmatics theory, it also has an explanatory function for translation. Sperber and Wilson（2001） believe that translation can also be regarded as a communication mode of explicitness and inference. The difference between internal communication is that translation is an explicit and inferential behavior that transcends language and cultural boundaries. The author hopes to prove that Relevance Theory is helpful in the interpretation of leaders’ speech, especially from the language of Chinese to English.
Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Latest Research on C-E Interpenetration of the Leaders’ Speeches
At present, domestic research on the speech interpretation of leaders has been quite rich. From the theoretical basis, there are Skopos Theory, Interpretive Theory, Functional Equivalence Theory, Ecological Translation Theory and so on. For example, in the book Interpretation on of the Summer Davos Forum in the Perspective of Interpretation Theory of Wang (2014), she used the speeches at the Summer Davos Forum in China from 2008 to 2013 as the object of study, summarizing of the speech of the Summer Davos Forum through sentence analysis. The characteristics are concise, accurate and professional and discussed the interpreting skills of this kind of speech based on the Triangular Model in the Interpretive Theory and the principle of equivalence. Another example is Wang’s (2014, pp. 33-35) article on the interpretation of Chinese-language vocabulary in diplomatic situations under the perspective of Skopos Theory. It analyzes the speeches of Chinese leaders in depth and focuses on the principles and existing lexical interpretation of Chinese characteristics, problems and their corresponding countermeasures under the guidance of Skopos Theory. It is also proposed that under the guidance of Skopos Theory, translators should adhere to the three specific principles of accuracy, flexibility and culture, and adopt the strategies of transliteration plus annotation, literal translation plus interpretation, affixation and vocabulary, synthetic methods and explanatory translations, so as to play the role of communicative bridges for foreign affairs interpretation. In addition, in the article of Xu ’s (2015) Interpretation Strategy in the Expression of Chinese Characteristics in International Conferences from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory--A Case Study of Interpretation Practice of Xi Jinping’s 2014 APEC Business Leaders Summit Keynote Speech, he analyzes the Chinese-English translation of Chinese vocabulary in the APEC Business Leaders Summit from Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory. It describes the English translation skills and strategies based on Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory for Chinese expressions in the speeches of the conference, which includes the literal translation, free translation, literal translation plus comment, adding comment, explaining, converting part of speech and adding, etc. From the direction of research, the interpretation research of leaders’ speech mainly focuses on the interpretation strategy. For example, in the article Difficulties and Countermeasures of Interpretation of Chinese Idioms in the Speech of National Leaders, Mo (2013) analyzes and summarizes the difficulties of interpreting Chinese idioms based on the examples of idiom interpretation in Chinese leaders’ speeches. To sum up, it is pointed out that interpreters can use the relevant interpreting skills to successfully cope with Chinese idioms, such as prep-translation preparation and adherence to interpreting principles.
2.2 Research on the Relationship of Relevance Theory and Interpretation
Abroad According to Sperber and Wilson, the relevance communication model can be seen as a communication model of explicitness and inference. On this basis, Gutt thinks that translation is actually a communicative process of cognitive reasoning. The difference between translation and intralingual communication is that translation is an explicit and inferential behavior which transcends language and cultural boundaries. In 1997, Robin (1997, pp. 33-66) published an article entitled A Relevance Account of Simultaneous Interpretation in the Journal of the Interpreting Research Association of Japan, using Relevance Theory to study the process of simultaneous interpretation. In this article, he pointed out that in the course of simultaneous interpretation, Relevance Theory can guide interpreters to deal with the difficulties encountered in translation more effectively in a limited time, and convey the speaker’s information intention and communicative intention better. This research can be described as one of the few foreign studies that apply Relevance Theory to the practice of interpretation. Later, some scholars have used Relevance Theory to study translation forms such as alternating interpretation and simultaneous interpretation, but the number is still small. The research on the use of Relevance Theory to interpret is still in the stage of gradual improvement. Even though some scholars have carried out a series of researches on Relevance Theory and translation, in general, there are not too many foreign studies on the use of Relevance Theory for interpretation relatively. German scholar Ernst August was the first person who applied Relevance Theory to translation, opening up a new path for translation studies. Although Relevance Theory is a theory of cognitive pragmatics, it also has an explanatory impact on translation. Translation under the guidance of Relevance Theory is different from traditional translation theory. Traditional translation theory only focuses on source authors and translators. In general, the traditional translation theory believes that the translator’s task is to faithfully present the semantics of the source text. However, they did not consider the environment of the target language, the translator’s cognitive ability and environment, and the cultural differences between the readers of the two languages and the expectations of the readers. In contrast, the translation according to the guidance of Relevance Theory focuses on three aspects: source author, translator and target reader. In addition, it also considers the cognitive environment of the target language reader, the expectation of the original text and the communicative effect. Therefore, the translator plays a dual role and assumes more responsibility throughout the process.